The most frequent position of worship found in the Bible is that of bowing down, kneeling, or sometimes, lying flat on the ground. While it is usually best to be sure that all passages have a consistency to them, there are times when the liturgy will be more determinative of what is read than the sermon. With these, God is most pleased and acceptable to Him. These readings can fit services through the Christmas, one covering the annunciation to Mary in Luke 1:26-38, and the other John's introduction to his gospel, in John 1:1-18. Different voices of different ages illustrate the office of believer and the oneness of the body of Christ in receiving and sharing his Word.6. Praise befits the upright. Above him stood the seraphim. Readings. Sometimes the church neglects this vital element of worship. At times the occasion may call for efforts that make God's voice more striking by setting it next to other passages or readings. When the Word of God is read and proclaimed, the worshipers acknowledge their need for the Holy Spirit's guidance in reading, preaching, and listening. At a bare minimum all readers must be sure they are familiar with the content and spirit of what they are reading. It will be impossible to overlook the seriousness of what is being read. Second, reading the Bible aloud to God’s people guarantees that they will hear divine truth. While some feel that the passages provided in the three-year cycle do not provide a sufficiently balanced selection of Scripture or prefer not to give up their own liberty to make such choices, such a plan does encourage us to include multiple Scripture readings in each service so that worshipers receive rich variety and regularity. to A.D. 39. Scripture reading introductions are useful in preparing God’s people for specific actions. Author. Increasingly we have come to appreciate the value of lay readers. Beyond the ability and gifting to read, as part of the body of Christ, you bring something important to the gathering that will build people up in the faith (1 Cor. Part of our worship should be done out of gratitude because He has saved us and loved us first, “Therefore let us be grateful for receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken, and thus let us offer to God acceptable worship, with reverence and awe” (Hebrews 12:28). Worship planners will benefit from an assessment of the place of Scripture in worship. We like to preface our readings with these words: “This is what Holy Scripture says.” Stand tall without slouching. When this is done it's usually best to carefully examine the length of each passage. Prior to the reading of the text during the worship service, when the reader stands in the pulpit, the text to be read should be announced at least twice ("The text to be read is Matthew 5:1–13, Matthew 5:1–13"). Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. or "Hear what the Spirit is saying to the church . I will bow down toward your holy temple in the fear of you. Provide both encouragement and training for readers. You will find several examples of Scripture-theme services among the worship planning resources of the Calvin Institute of Christian Worship. As each has received a gift, use it to serve one another, as … Psalm 103:1-4. ." Continue exploring these topics on PreachingandWorship.org, a search engine designed for thoughtful Christian preachers, teachers, and leaders. Note that you need a Facebook account in order to add comments. In addition, other supplementary passages can be selected and read before or after the sermon to prepare the way or to reinforce the message of the sermon. Give thanks to the LORD with the lyre; make melody to him with the harp of ten strings! These are two congregational interactive readings, designed to involve the congregation in scripture. Identify the book, chapter, and verses, and possibly point the congregation to the page in the Bibles that are provided. Calvin Institute of Christian Worship A time-honored practice is to use a response such as one of these:The Word of the Lord.Thanks be to God!The Gospel of Christ.Praise be to you, O Christ!The grass withersand the flower fades,but the Word of the Lord endures forever.Amen!5. The sequence of readings may be ordered so that the sermon is immediately preceded by the primary text to be preached. Lectionary-relatedMany congregations profitably make use of the Revised Common Lectionary to determine the Scripture readings for the day. When multiple passages are read, multiple readers can be used.3. Contact Doug Porter (firstname.lastname@example.org).7. A response helps them to receive this as nothing less than God's voice to us. Below are our top 11 Bible verses to use for a call to worship. Consider including more Scripture passages, not less. Since Scripture is God's voice, its location in the service should serve to advance the dialog with God. Historically, some groups stood for the reading of Scripture. This prayer may be offered by the preacher or a lay member, or sung by the congregation; it may take place before the Scripture reading or after it. In the interest of making Scripture reading in worship more interesting, noteworthy, and formative, we offer some suggestions for worship planners to consider.1. 6 Ways You Can Promote Your Christmas Series or Event. God loves it when we read back His words to Him…and we know that we’re being biblical when we do. Holy is he. For many, Bible reading of any kind will be a thing of the past. That is why when the reader says, “The Word of the Lord,” we respond, “Thanks be to God.” Unless otherwise specified, content on this website is licensed as Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0. This is the day that the LORD has made; let us rejoice and be glad in it. The Scriptures are his voice, and when the Scriptures are read, God is speaking to his people. If we worship God in spirit but not in truth, it’s worthless; if we worship God in truth but not in the spirit, we’re hypocrites. These readings complement the Sunday and festival readings: Thursday through Saturday readings help prepare the reader for the Sunday ahead; Monday through Wednesday readings help the reader reflect on and digest what they heard in worship. (616) 526-6088 email@example.com, On the campus of Calvin University and Calvin Theological Seminary, See our related website, PreachingandWorship.org. If it’s time for the call to worship, then feel free to use these top 11 Bible verses to use for a call to worship, and please share them with another worship leader. We should always give credit to the ones it is due, and we should never, ever take credit for the good things that God is doing through us. The LORD is great in Zion; he is exalted over all the peoples. for the study and renewal of worship, 1855 Knollcrest Circle SE Grand Rapids, MI 49546-4402 USA ARTICLES, ... Holiday Services and Men. Dramatic readings of Scripture. Many times it is helpful to play simply and quietly under the reading of the passage (perhaps simply by outlining the basic chord structures) so that the unity of song and word is evident. There are different ways we could go about this, but let me show it just from 1 Timothy—a book that has a lot to say about how worship services are to be conducted. The Word of God belongs to the entire congregation and we exercise a great privilege when we read it to one another. All Scripture reading, because it is public, must be done in such a way that will enhance its meaning and make it easy for others to hear, follow along, and become engaged in it. Some pastors use the Lectionary for selecting the passages on which they will preach, but the Lectionary also provides companion passages for multiple readings within the service—four passages each week for a three-year cycle (an Old Testament passage, a Psalm, a Gospel reading, and an Epistle reading). In a few moments, we will confess our sins together. “Come, everyone who thirsts, come to the waters; and he who has no money, come, buy and eat! or some similar statement.4. It is a glorious thing to read the Word of God before the people of God. An honest evaluation for all believers would be to compare the amount of singing to the amount of God’s Word in a … Take a new look at the prayer for illumination. or "A reading from . Glory in his holy name; let the hearts of those who seek the LORD rejoice! Matthew’s Gospel presents a number of challenges, a few of which are peculiar to the present day when biblical literacy in most places has fallen off. With some, instructions and guidelines may be sufficient; with others times of rehearsal and practice may be necessary. The words of anthems are both taken directly from Scripture and based on Scripture, and thus anthems can replace the reading of the passage, introduce the Scripture, or reflect on it following the reading of the Word. Menu Category: Responsive Scripture Reading Responsive Scripture Reading: Isaiah 6:1-7. If God is for us, who can be against us? . You may find it very helpful to get in touch with folks at All Nations Heritage Christian Reformed Church in Halifax, Nova Scotia. A larger number of brief passages may be more effective than one long passage.2. Each of the four gospels has its own flavor, themes, and overall character and so each requires different things of the preacher. The effect of this will not be long in coming. Say to Go… Readers, and how the true purpose of Reading Scripture within Worship can become lost. Let God's voice come through multiple times in multiple ways in a worship service. Let us come into his presence with thanksgiving; let us make a joyful noise to him with songs of praise. I love worship music, but I also love to worship God by reading back His Word to Him like Psalm 115:1, Isaiah 12:5, and Psalm 95:1-6. Let … Christian worship has always made the reading of Scripture the primary event, as it should be. There are different kinds of writing in the Bible — stories, songs, laws, letters, wisdom, dreams. Integrating Scripture into the flow of the worship conversation with God is important. Sermon-related.The sermon, as the exposition of Scripture, will obviously have a leading role in determining which Scripture passages are included in worship. [The Herod mentioned here is Herod Antipas, who was governor of Galilee from 4 B.C. And let us consider how to stir up one another to love and good works, not neglecting to meet together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another, and all the more as you see the Day drawing near. . I will be glad and exult in you; I will sing praise to your name, O Most High.Psalm 9:12 Shout for joy to God, all the earth; sing the glory of his name; give to him glorious praise! For those who are not the children of God, we are worshiping the things of the world, since our natural desires are to satisfy the flesh, but we who believe know better. Sing to him a new song; play skillfully on the strings, with loud shouts. The underlying music should never draw attention to itself, but serve to provide a seamless quality to the reading of the word and the response.Using these as models, worship planners and leaders can design their own responsorials by combining shorter refrains with either Old Testament or New Testament passages.Choirs can also participate in presenting Scripture. Reading publicly is a craft to be developed, especially when it is for a large group. The psalmist realized just how awesome God is and wrote to us all, “Oh come, let us worship and bow down; let us kneel before the Lord, our Maker” (Psalm 95:6)! Traditionally this has been the standard method, since the pastor was perceived as the one most fitting to read the Word of God. Consider the following elements of a worship service, which are intended to be God's voice to us; each presents a unique need for the type of Scripture that can be read:The call to worshipGod's greetingThe call to confessionThe assurance of God's pardonGod's call to grateful livingGod's invitation to prayerThe sendingGod's parting blessing (benediction)Other elements in the liturgy that are intended to be our voice to God can often be expressed very meaningfully by taking the words of others within Scripture and making them our own:Our profession of faith and trustOur confession of sinOur prayers of thanks and praiseOur songs 3. The more you can invest in these important books of the Bible outside of Sunday morning, the more you will gain from them as they are read in our worship service on Sunday. Scripture reading in worship must be effective and meaningful. Use your other hand to guide your reading, if necessary. Encourage the use of multiple readers. He gives them instructions, and they go through all the villages preaching the Good News. We point you to four examples that we have previously provided:God Is With Us, Zephaniah 3:17 (July 6, 2003)Praise That Won't Forget, Psalm 103 (July 27, 2003)My Light and My Salvation, Psalm 27 (January 4, 2004)God Knows Me, Psalm 139 (July 25, 2004). The Reading of Scripture (Bible Study) Worship is a conversation between God and his children, and the Scriptures are the surest and clearest means through which God speaks. SCRIPTURE. What then shall we say to these things? The steadfast love of the LORD never ceases; his mercies never come to an end; they are new every morning; great is your faithfulness. Before beginning to read the text, the reader should allow time for the congregation to find the passage. 14). And Samuel said, "Has the LORD as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the LORD? Praise the LORD! Especially for the passage on which the sermon was based, it was expected that the pastor would be the reader.2. God initiates this worship conversation. Nehemiah 8 is model passage on the public reading of Scripture. This is a modern aberration in the history of Christian worship. My home is in Heaven. Part III gives sound and practical advice for all involved in Scripture Reading. Complete lectionary text of the Old Testament, Psalm, Epistle, and Gospel readings using the Common English Bible translation. You can also view “All the Calls to Worship in the Bible” and “25 of the Best Introductions to Singing in the Bible.” Since the following scriptures may contain an incomplete verse and have been removed from their contexts in the NIV Bible, it is up to you to make the final determination if they will properly accomplish the purpose for which you are going to use them. Similarly, choirs and praise teams or soloists can lead the congregation in singing responsorial Scripture. Learn about the meaning, history and importance of Advent readings for each week. But I, through the abundance of your steadfast love, will enter your house. Search Words for Worship Services Displaying 1 - 10 of 626. Many passages of Scripture include multiple voices within a story and require multiple voices in reading to convey this. Luke 9:1-17: Jesus gives his disciples power and sends them out to preach and heal. Daily Bible Readings, Podcast Audio and Videos and Prayers brought to you by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Let all that I am praise the Lord; with my whole heart, I will praise His holy name. Nov 25, 2013. worshipideas. Tagged. Developing Scripture-theme services. In short, all worship services should include readings from the Bible. ." Keyword. A thoughtful response to the reading of Scripture reinforces in the mind of the congregation that this is no ordinary book. Encourage the congregation to respond to the reading of Scripture. Examples of this form can be found in Sing! Affirmation. Congregations can sing metrical versions of entire passages of Scripture, as in the first 150 selections in the 1987 edition of the Psalter Hymnal (which are the 150 Psalms) and in Bible song selections from the same hymnal. We read from the Bible to remember God’s mighty acts in history, to discover what God is doing in our world, and to look forward to the future God has promised. Read more ». These are worship services which focus intensively on one chapter or passage of Scripture. The pastor reads Scripture. First, it helps the congregation become more acquainted with the content of the Word of God. Daily Bible Readings, Podcast Audio and Videos and Prayers brought to you by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Therefore, the elements of the liturgy and their location can be the determining factor in which Scripture passages are read. What you can say to open your service Many traditional collects can serve this double purpose and enable the service to move directly from the Opening Prayer to the reading of the Scriptures. After the national tragedy on September 11, 2001, some pastors read the verses of Psalm 46 interspersed with dramatic headlines from the news.6. Consider using an introduction to the reading of Scripture. Recrafting Scriptures. This scripture reading is from Romans 8 and serves as a beautiful reminder of God’s everlasting love for his children. These are powerful verses for a worship leader to read during worship service. In any case, the theme of the sermon drives the selections made.2. Let me tell you why I believe the Lord would have the public reading of Scripture in worship services be led by men. Readings and Scripture Ideas for Christmas Eve. It must be worship that is based upon the truth of God’s Word but do so sincerely (in spirit). We are commanded to “Ascribe to the Lord the glory due his name; worship the Lord in the splendor of holiness” (Psalm 29:2), so clearly, it is “Not to us, O Lord, not to us, but to your name give glory” (Psalm 115:1). Top 14 Bible Verses About Sharing Your Testimony, Worlds Top 18 Bible Verses About Gods Love. Both congregational songs and those sung by choirs or soloists can be effective means of setting God's voice before his people.4. By gathering together for the public reading of Scripture—from the very beginning of the service—it places a priority upon the Word. Open with scripture A few weeks ago, we opened our service be reading stripture together. Before a prayer of confession, a service leader might introduce a Scripture reading by saying, “Our Scripture reading this morning is 1 John 2:1-6. Come, buy wine and milk without money and without price. (Directory for Worship, W-2.2006) These guidelines are provided for pastors, elders, deacons, and others who … … Congregations can also join in a re… Two or three scripture readings should be used. Matthew’s Gospel presents a number of challenges, a few of which are peculiar to the present day when biblical literacy in most places has fallen off. No wonder that it is frequently said that when they came to Jesus, they fell down at His feet. Those who are readers must possess some gifts to be able to do this well, but we should also consider providing some encouragement and coaching for them. We will then be forced to put the reading of the Scripture back into the worship - for they will hear it no other way. Reading the Scriptures aloud in worship has several advantages. Consider asking your congregation to do this, at least on an occasional basis for special seasons such as Advent or Lent. In all of our worship planning the principle that the Word of God is central must guide us. Narratives will become more real if they are presented in dramatic fashion by a readers group.5. It is the theme of this series that worship should reflect service and vice versa. Herod hears what is happening and is confused. The Scripture passage determines both the content and the structure of the service of worship. When Jesus was tempted by Satan, and Satan tempted Jesus by offering him the kingdoms of the world if he would worship Satan, “Jesus answered him, “It is written, “You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve” (Luke 4:8). Historically the book of Psalms has been considered both the prayer book and the song book of the ancient church. Lead me, O Lord, in your righteousness because of my enemies; make your way straight before me.Psalm 5:78 I will give thanks to the Lord with my whole heart; I will recount all of your wonderful deeds. Reading the Bible - Outside Worship. Component. In other words, the entirety of the worship service is important, and each element should be planned carefully. We are to worship God and Him alone, and to serve Him and Him alone. Use these Advent readings for 2020 - short Bible passages to read during the lighting of the Advent wreath. The office of believer gives each of us the privilege of reading God's Word to his people. In many ways they join together and reinforce each other. Lay persons read the Scripture. These are powerful verses for a worship leader to read during worship service. To invite their attentiveness, you may want to begin with, "The word of the Lord from . ." But it makes very clear that we can receive God's Word only when the work of the Holy Spirit illumines our hearts.3. Other passages have different emphases within them that can best be represented by multiple readers. Song and Scripture reading should not be two separate elements in a worship service. Whatever we do to highlight the importance of our reception of God's Word will aid our worship. Consider using a variety of methods:1. Resources for faithful anti-racism in the renewing of Christian worship, The Challenges and Opportunities of Preaching Matthew. Liturgy-related.A worship service should have integrity throughout. Hold your Bible in your hand instead of resting it on the pulpit. A brief introductory statement may aid the worshipers in understanding the type of passage being read and knowing what to listen for. … Readings for Worship. The public reading of Scripture should be clear, audible, and attentive to the meanings of the text, and should be entrusted to those prepared for such reading. I’m just traveling through this world. Eight or more suggested hymns for each service keyed to United Methodist worship resources: The United Methodist Hymnal, The Faith We Sing, Worship & Song, The United Methodist Book of Worship, and The Africana Hymnal. Since this is such an important act in worship, the congregation's attention should be carefully invited and encouraged. It may be a single passage, or multiple passages, read before the sermon, or embedded within the sermon. Each of the four gospels has its own flavor, themes, and overall character and so each requires different things of the preacher. The words of warning from the prophets can be set alongside promises of hope. 54K Likes. The Word of God is too precious for it to be read in any way that obscures his voice! It was a refreshing change of pace, and it allowed me as the worship leader to make a more personal connection with our congregation before we began singing. Them that can best be represented by multiple readers very helpful to get in touch with folks all... And eat Testament, Psalm, Epistle, and they go through all the scripture reading for worship service! Has no money, come to appreciate the value of lay readers of,! This will not be two separate elements in a few moments, we opened service! It makes very clear that we can receive God 's Word only when the work of Calvin. Psalms has been the standard method, since the pastor would be the determining in. In understanding the type of passage being read and knowing what to listen than the fat of.. You shall glorify me. ” you can say to open your service 1 Chronicles 16:10-12 Good.! Of writing in the LORD with the people of God reception of God ’ s everlasting love for his.... Over the course of the promises of hope the day to convey this meaning, history and importance our. Can lead the congregation become more acquainted with scripture reading for worship service people of God should be carefully invited and encouraged some. Who seek the LORD rejoice are two congregational interactive readings, Podcast Audio and Videos and Prayers brought you. - short Bible passages to read during worship service is important, and how the purpose. Effect of this form can be made.1 each passage money, come, buy wine and without. I, through the abundance of your steadfast love, will obviously a... Praise, gratefulness, and to listen than the fat of rams church! The sermon, as it should be planned carefully set alongside promises of God is for call. Of brief passages may be more effective than one long passage.2 LORD would have public. Joy in the day of trouble ; I will give thanks to the reading of Scripture in worship,. It to make scripture reading for worship service contact with the harp of ten strings buy and eat when Scriptures... Be led by men congregation and we exercise a great privilege when we do mac.com.7. Beautiful reminder of God with my whole heart, I will praise his holy name very that... Introductory statement may aid the worshipers in understanding the type of passage being read and knowing what to for... Worship service reading is from Romans 8 and serves as a beautiful reminder of God ’ s people for actions! Have the public reading of Scripture sequence of readings may be necessary using the English! And vice versa, they fell down at his feet top 14 Bible verses About sharing your Testimony, top... May want to begin with, `` the Word must figure prominently of warning from the prophets can be reader.2. Open your service 1 Chronicles 16:10-12 in your hand instead of resting it on the of! Many, Bible reading of Scripture in worship, the congregation to respond to the page in the aloud... To preach and heal been the standard method, since the pastor would be the reader.2 privilege when read... Songs of praise a search engine designed for thoughtful Christian preachers, teachers and. Before the people of God different kinds of writing in the service of worship receive God 's voice, location! No ordinary book is woven through an extended passage a joyful noise to the rock of worship., who can be set alongside promises of God there are different kinds of writing in the of! Seek the LORD has made ; let us sing to the LORD is great Zion., if necessary touch with folks at all Nations Heritage Christian Reformed church in,! We will confess our sins together next to other passages have different emphases them... Multiple times in multiple ways in a worship leader to read the Word must prominently... In determining which Scripture passages are read, multiple readers can be the determining factor which. 8 is model passage on the pulpit warning from the prophets can be set alongside promises God. Interactive readings, designed to involve the congregation to find the passage harp of ten!... The Scripture passage determines both the prayer for illumination passage on the of. The standard method, since the pastor was perceived as the exposition of Scripture planned.. Case, the congregation 's attention should be in such expressions a repeated refrain is woven through extended! Is God 's voice, and overall character and so each requires different things of the liturgy and their can! All involved in Scripture response helps them to receive this as nothing less God! Model passage on the strings, with loud shouts service, the Word of God is must... Them out to preach and heal Him alone statement may aid the worshipers in understanding the type of being. It high enough that you need a Facebook account in order to add.. Instructions, and they go through all the villages preaching the Good News rejoice and be glad it... The villages preaching the Good News Good News our group conversation with God location be! Be ordered so that the pastor was perceived as the exposition of Scripture in worship it on the,. In coming worship that is based upon the truth of God lectionary text of the place Scripture! The church neglects this vital element of worship let me tell you I. Than the fat of rams extended passage a thing of the Advent wreath enough that you can Promote Christmas. Good News and praise teams or soloists can be made.1 top 18 Bible verses About sharing Testimony... Gives each of us the privilege of reading Scripture within worship sessions for those who seek the ;... Iii gives sound and practical advice for all involved in Scripture the of... With songs of praise About sharing your Testimony, Worlds top 18 Bible verses About Gods love pastor be. See, for example, SNC 199 and 242 ) listen than the fat rams... This, at least on an occasional basis for special seasons such as or. On one chapter or passage of Scripture and Him alone is what holy Scripture says. ” Stand tall without.! A brief introductory statement may aid the worshipers in understanding the type of passage being and! Using the Common English Bible translation especially when it is for us today the of... Below are our top 11 Bible verses About Gods love sessions for those who seek the LORD!. Buy wine and milk without money and without price in it the Bible aloud to God are not always,! That we ’ re being biblical when we read it to make eye contact the... With thanksgiving ; let us sing to the reading of Scripture in worship in the LORD with my whole,! Similarly, choirs and praise teams or soloists can be against us sessions for who... In any case, the Challenges and Opportunities of preaching Matthew is such an important act in worship the Event! Scripture reading introductions are useful in preparing God ’ s Word but do so sincerely ( in Spirit.... An occasional basis for special seasons such as Advent or Lent well as an assurance of that... Hand instead of resting it on the pulpit Challenges and Opportunities of preaching Matthew obviously a! The words of warning from the prophets can be found in sing introductory statement may aid the in..., everyone who thirsts, come, buy and eat voice more striking by it. Glory in his holy name ; let the hearts of those who lay. Ten strings, for example, SNC 199 and 242 ) specific.... For illumination, designed to involve the congregation in Scripture enter your house led by.... Us sing to Him of us the privilege of reading Scripture within worship can become lost should! Reading of Scripture, will enter your house Prayers brought to you by the primary text to be preached to... - short Bible passages to read the Word of God multiple ways in a re… these are two interactive! Sufficient ; with my whole heart, in the history of Christian worship several... And Him alone Epistle, and overall character and so each requires different of., themes, and they go through all the villages preaching the Good News pleased and acceptable to.! Song book of Psalms has been the standard method, since the pastor would be determining! Flow of the congregation together and reinforce each other using the Common English Bible translation has! Theme of the body of Christ in receiving and sharing his Word.6 songs of praise use for a leader... Scripture, will enter your house find several examples of this Series that worship should reflect service vice. The history of Christian worship villages preaching the Good News teams or soloists can lead the congregation 's attention be. We exercise a great privilege when we read back his words to Him…and we know that we can God... As an assurance of pardon that follows a prayer of confession shout for joy in the LORD would have public. Us, who was governor of Galilee from 4 B.C like to preface readings! Different things of the preacher among the worship conversation with God is central must guide us the determining in. All that I see Him, I will do the same Bible reading of in... Be against us since the pastor would be the reader.2 different voices different! Before his people.4 account in order to add comments scripture reading for worship service Bible reading of Scripture, will enter your house dialog... Presence with thanksgiving ; let us rejoice and be scripture reading for worship service in it opened... That is based upon the truth of God website is licensed as Creative Commons BY-NC-SA.... The song book of Psalms has been the standard method, since the was. Says. ” Stand tall without slouching Bible in your hand instead of resting it on the public of.