But hey, now that you’ve read all about the best primer for bare woods, we hope you’re a touch stress-free and at least know which direction you’re headed. We plan to paint these off white. It’s great when you do something with your hands for someone else, congratulations! This product has a special mildewcide additive that can prevent mold and mildew from forming. Thank you. Hence, you can apply double coats with shorter intervals in between. Apart from doing his full-time job (which is, of-course writing), he enjoys hiking with his soulmate Mary & close friend Stephen. More importantly, it helps to mask any stains that might be on the surface. Likewise, a dark color painted over a custom-tinted primer will reach its darker tone with fewer coats. Hello Mark. Sap-streaked or knotty wood – shellac-based; PVC, Formica, glossy surfaces – resin-based or latex-based; You can also consider using a two-in-one paint and primer on some surfaces, which can be useful if you are short on time and need a quicker end result. It will give you really good protection from water and the sun and will protect the paint. It also has a very low odor, a common quality of latex paint, so you won’t be exposed to harmful fumes. Help please!!!! A latex primer like this is an excellent option for priming wood at a swift speed. There seems to be little definitive advice for this and so I would really appreciate your expert view and recommendation for undercoat/primer and top coat paint for touching up and re-painting powder coated wood (windows and sun-room – indoors and outdoors). Zinsser needs no introduction as it has marked a place in the hearts of painters just by being a significant part of the Rust-Oleum clan. } "@type": "FAQPage", Hi, "@type": "Question", | Our True Verdict, Can be utilized on plastics, woods or metals, Not enough product inside can for big projects, Some users complained about not hiding tannins. After thorough research, browsing through other reviews and users’ ratings, we have finally listed our top 10 picks. You’re practically shoving your valuable bucks down the drain if you can’t attain the full value in terms of versatility. Most of the primers on the list are water-based. But, not anymore. While no product is perfect, this one does offer plenty of advantages. Well, it really is versatile, isn’t it? If you point out mistakes I wrote I would be glad to fix them. Prime the Wood . This makes them safer to use and much easier to clean up in the event of an accident. Heck, people fall into such traps only to find mercy in the hands of experienced users, professionals, and reviews later on. ", For you, I recommend KILZ Restoration which is a water-based primer and sealer in one. I hope that I have given you a good start on that process and that you will return to read more of my work. Water can easily penetrate and then stick between the layers. How To Prime & Paint Old Furniture with Rust-Oleum® and Zinsser! So, let’s take a quick look at my top picks. For the topcoat make sure not to get gloss if you don’t want your fence to be shiny. Before applying the primer, it is good to lightly sand the old coating, this will certainly increase the adhesion (the connection between the paint and the primer). It’s necessary to sand down your project after applying primer as it will give the surface a smooth finish without leaving behind blotches, brush marks, tiny globs, and remaining fibers on the drywall. Mix the primer well and apply it with a brush or roller. On the other hand, this is also acclaimed as the best primer for bare wood because of its exceptional qualities that increase its worth compared to regular water-based primers. Think of latex primer as the jack of all trades and … New Wood If your wood isn't stained, use a high-quality latex primer or an oil-based primer. Zinsser is a brand that is a part of the Rust-Oleum family of paints and primers. The front was painted with Zinsser cover stain and 2 coats aura Benjamin Moore 4 years ago. It will not work for outdoor jobs, so don’t try to use it that way. Should I light sand and use one of these primers on those spots and paint over? Whereas bare or unfinished woods are installed before sanding down and then refinished on the project site. Make sure you remove any dust, dirt, or grime that may be present, as these may affect the adhesion of the primer. This one may be small, but it does its job very effectively. After using the primer, which is the best undercoat - top coat paints . If you don’t know much about painting, you might not know anything at all about primers. How long do bare wood primers take to dry? Also you can try KILZ Adhesion primer which is designed especially for tough-to-paint surfaces. Zinsser 03504 Cover Stain Interior/Exterior Oil Primer – Best Wood Primer and Sealer; 9. This is a great water-based option from KILZ’ premium line of primers. #1 Rust-Oleum 207014 – Best For Glossy Result. Without the pressures of the elements, the product doesn’t have to be all that tough, especially since it will be covered. When you first apply it, there may be a slight odor but the odor dissipates extremely quickly and doesn’t linger like the odor from most oil-based primers. I think its compressed wood or what ever it’s called it’s not like oak or anything The oil-based KILZ primer sure does give off a heavy smell, just like any other contender. That being said, this product is the next step down from marine paint. It isn’t only the oldest and more reliable brands to innovate the best sealers and primers but has also maintained its integrity ever since. This will ensure a faster application but extra ventilation is a must because of the particles. Yes, you guessed it right. Finally, you can seal with a wood sealant like this one by Thompson. Save money, time and get returns with professional-level results. Some products may dry in as little as 30 minutes, but that should be considered a bare minimum. This is a bright white primer with a water-based formula. Any thoughts or guidance? I bought a sprayer and want to use a water based primer. Hi there, Only after the wood filler has served its purpose and sanded over you can prime your project. If you are familiar with cooking, it is sort of like adding egg wash to have the breading stick to your meat in a deep fryer. About 70 % is bare wood now. If our former sprayer option doesn’t sit well with you, here’s another excellent alternative. It adheres to smooth and glossy surfaces like tile with incredible strength and provides a great seal against moisture. When you need some primer, you usually need a lot, and so we won’t deduct any points for that. Actually, there is no ‘standalone’ primer on the list which is perfectly suitable for ptw/floors. Pigmented shellac, although odorous, dries quickly and is the best primer for blocking stains -- painters use it to prime tannin-rich species like redwood. Which is the best primer for timber - wood Exterior windows. Shellac based primers are great for sealing wood knots and sap streaks. Since only marine paint is suitable for these things, we shouldn’t be too surprised. Some products may dry in as little as 30 minutes, but that should be considered a bare minimum." We are told not to apply this primer in direct sunlight, with polyethylene/polypropylene, or on hot surfaces. Thanks again. I’m hoping the store will tint either of these gray for me. I will correct the article as soon as possible. Zinsser 00904 B-I-N Pigmented Shellac Primer, 09. Overall, this primer is highly suitable for regular purpose and very efficient for work. The great quality of this product is the mildewcide, besides that, it is similar to a lot of other water-based primers. Painting Over Polyurethane | Can You Paint Over Polyurethane? by woodhappen. If your paint is oil-based, make sure your primer is compatible with oil paints, etc." The Krylon primer comes in a sprayer can; thus, it can be coated within minutes for better convenience. Each can will only cover about ten square feet. Thus, I wouldn’t recommend this one for very large projects. It doesn’t! This Zinsser edition isn’t only apt for tucking in stains but can be your best companion for smaller household retouches. An innovative type of wood primer that has been lately selected as one of the best in its class. #2 KILZ 2 Multi-Surface 20941 Stain – Best For Stain Blocking. It’s only available in quart cans anyway, so this product is obviously intended for smaller projects. You begin by thoroughly cleaning the surface to be primed. After spending decades working as a woodworker, Rockey decided to consult other woodworkers & general people through writing. Along with that, the drying time takes about 10 minutes overall. It’s a pretty thick, so it provides good coverage in one coat. Many thanks in advance. Of course, this stuff won’t be as hard as an actual oil-based primer, but it does offer a little more durability. I don’t really see any special features or advantages to justify this cost, even though this is a good all-around product. I did get a gallon of Behr Premium semi gloss exterior paint for the project, but if that is not as good as another ext. Take a whirl of this Zinsser primer to know that adding a steep value to your spendings is actually easily possible, sometimes. KILZ Restoration Interior Latex Primer/Sealer –  The Anti-Stink Heavy Duty Primer, 5. Good news: The KILZ primer also has an active 30-minute dry to touch formula. My best advice for a worn varnished floor, particularly one which has faded in colour will be to sand back to bare wood, to start again, this will ensure you are able to get an even all over colour. }. Before you apply the topcoat, you should inspect the primer coat for any marks or streaks that need to be sanded. Want to to do gloss white finally.. Incredibly versatile, both on wood and other porous surfaces, this primer provides excellent enamel undercoating. Would prefer to use latex based primer and paint. "text": "You can usually use normal brushes to apply primer, but most people report better results when using brushes made of synthetic materials. Your wife is lucky to have you! While many of these advantages are legitimate, we would advise you to read carefully and make sure they aren’t trying to pass off a standard feature as a bonus. Holds tight without falling. It is also really good to use on trim and furniture since it has rich color and dries quickly. Our Top 10 Picks for Best Bare Wood Primers in 2021: 10. Thanks for your time "@type": "Answer", Are you planning to sneak in stains? Good, because if that’s on your must-do agenda now, then feel relieved. Behr is a great brand and you shouldn’t have to repaint and prime it for a while. This stuff does smell a little strong, so make sure you open a window before you open that can. Thank you for the interesting review and buyer’s guide. And you’re done. You can apply topcoat right over the primer. KILZ General Purpose Exterior Latex Primer, 03. However, this INSL-X primer is just what you need trying times. These are the most versatile primers on the market, but with increased versatility comes lower performance in specific areas. Don’t forget to sand your nightstands before priming, that’s all I can recommend here. Should I sand before or after using a primer? "text": "The answer to this question will vary by product, and also by your needs. It has a water-based density. KILZ Original Multi-Surface Stain Blocking Interior Oil-Based Primer, 08. Yes, you can get the primer tinted. When it comes to craving the smoothest finish, where else can you reside to if not with splurging on KILZ primers? The thinking was that the oil-based primer penetrated the wood fibers better than a latex primer, ensuring a firmer bond and thus a longer lasting paint job. So, get crazy with this unmatchable primer that fits all plans and on all kinds of material. } Zinsser Oil Primer Cover Stain is among the best primers for kitchen cabinets and favored by professionals for painting and refinishing. John Burbidge, author of the book "Watching Paint Dry," shows how to properly prime bare wood prior to painting. "@type": "Answer", It is our personal favorite when priming patches.. Additionally it is low cost and seals great.. Zinsser 00904 B-I-N Pigmented Shellac Primer, KILZ Original Multi-Surface Stain Blocking Interior Oil-Based Primer, Krylon K05160202 ColorMaster Paint + Primer, Rust-Oleum 272479 Zinsser Bulls Eye 1-2-3 Plus Spray Primer, Rust-Oleum 2004 Zinsser Bulls Eye 1-2-3 Primer, KILZ Premium High-Hide Stain Blocking Primer, KILZ General Purpose Exterior Latex Primer, INSL-X SXA11009A-01 Stix Acrylic Waterborne Bonding Primer, Rust-Oleum Corporation 271009 Advanced Synthetic Shellac Primer, KILZ L211101 Adhesion High-Bonding Interior Latex Primer, 10 Best Deck Sealers for Pressure Treated Wood in 2021: Top Choices, 10 Best Exterior Wood Primers in 2021: Ultimate Outdoor Beauty, 10 Best Epoxy Resins for Woodworking in 2021: Eco-Friendly Resin, Best Polyurethanes for Table Tops – Perfect Finishes in 2021, 10 Best Wood Fillers For Decks in 2021: Editor’s Choice. I have used furniture grade plywood and some pine wood. Zinsser Triple Coat?? Introducing Zinsser Bulls Eye 1-2-3 Gray Primer. Thanks for this very informative article. It’s guaranteed that you haven’t met an adhesive primer this strong and… sticky before. After that, we will continue with some general information on the subject. The label says that it works with alkyd, oil, and water-based primers, which covers just about everything. "name": "How many coats of primer do I need? I am trying to find primers for pressure treated wood. Thus, you don’t want to go crazy and buy a huge can unless you need one. This means that it can safely be used in small and/or enclosed spaces. To be honest with you, primers will inevitably enhance your paint’s quality and deliver a seamless finish. The answer to this question will vary by product, and also by your needs. #3: KILZ Premium 13902 – Best For Safety Of Using. "name": "How do I apply primer? The label clearly says that it’s not meant for constant wetness or underwater use. Just renew the sealant every few years or when needed without having to paint. It gets its name from ease of use, as there is nothing complex about this product at all. Any information will be greatly appreciated. So, you’re finally taking the wheel and opting to prime bare walls, but do you know which products to choose? Shellac primers are best used as stain-resisters. The disadvantage of it being thick is that it may not be the best choice if you want to spray it. Spar Varnish is also another good product to help seal the wood and paint from anything. All In One Primer. Primer is a thin paint which soaks into the grain slightly and takes some of the porosity out of the new, or bare timber. This water based primer is great for sealing bare drywall.. Oil-based primers have a high shine anyway, so the addition of a polyurethane sealer will only add to that quality. This is the most expensive item on the list, although option number four is a close second. The best primer for bare wood is formulated in ways that will elevate your woodwork and sustain it in the long run. In addition, KILZ Premium got great adhesion and mildew protection. This saves time, and also saves money on sandpaper. I think those will work. I’m guessing the wood is pine, certainly not cedar. As a general rule, we would advise you to buy a little bit more than you think you need…but only a little bit more! 10 Best Wood Primers Review 1) KILZ Premium High-Hide Stain Blocking Interior/Exterior Latex Primer/Sealer, White, 1-gallon. Because this product is meant for high-durability use, you should probably be using multiple coats anyway. Your room has to be well ventilated if you are going to be in an enclosed space. Another unique feature that it beholds is its 30-minute drying ability. Worry not; it wouldn’t budge a single grain out of place when in contact with your masterpiece. "name": "How long does wood primer take to dry? I think the Behr paint you have will work really well. To be honest, the short shelf life is the only serious problem. It is worth mentioning that Rust-Oleum brand is known for its high-quality paints that are the part of great paints for wood on the market. Don’t worry about stains or odors either. It’s safe to say that you will be delivered desired results no matter if you apply it on masonry, wood, or other surfaces. The majority of the time a water-based primer will do the job. Obviously, a thicker product will require fewer coats. Its high-hiding brilliant white color accomplishes your absolute necessity – obscuring stains. Does the primer react with the paint under it? Yes, this is not an easy task, but it will prolong the life of your creation. I do see a few problems with this product. So once you have sanded everywhere you can apply primer number one on the list it will do a great job for you. Most of the negative reviews focus on two problems: A short shelf life and a tendency to be too thin. Rather than being a general-use product, this one is specialized for hard jobs. any recommendations? I think you better sand and repaint all the cabinets rather than certain areas to keep the color the same but you can try to repaint only the problematic areas. Huge projects? Thankfully, this is not a complex choice, either. Oil-based paints are usually more expensive, but they offer a tougher finish that is still flexible enough to resist flaking. Go ahead, and invest your time in all the DIYs that you’ve been dying to get back to. INSL-X Stix Waterborne – The Hard-Boiled Primer, 9. "@type": "Question", },{ Zinsser Cover Stain Interior/Exterior Oil Primer – Maximum Shine Primer, 6. It sands real easy and is fairly low cost. This gives it some of the advantages of both products. For trim, you may have to add an additional coat. You’re in the right place! Whether you’re painting unfinished or painted wood, it’s essential to … What do you suggest and can I get the primer tinted? Intrigued? Then apply an exterior paint like this one by Rust-Oleum. There’s some wood stain starting to show through almost immediately. I’m trying to find a good primer to paint onto FRTW plywood. Besides sealing odors and smells for eternity, it can also be utilized to complete recoating works quickly. Step 4: Consider Tinted Primer . Be careful about exaggerated advertisements that claim that primers have to be a part of all painting jobs. "text": "This will vary by product, but you are generally looking at 1-4 hours before you can re-coat or cover the primer. I have not used a primer on powder coating, but I see no reason why this primer by KILZ1 should not work. You can always use a sealer over the paint to help protect it as well. Mind you – this seal will work effortlessly on indoor crafts. A good sealer for the Ontario weather I would recommend this finish by Behr on Amazon. I would sand the door to get the paint and primer off and make sure everything is off and try again. Primer also improves the topcoat's ability to resist surface moisture. This primer is an indoor oil-based. Rockey is passionate about pets as well & his John named dog is giving him company for the past 6 years. Rust-Oleum 272479 Zinsser Bulls Eye 1-2-3 Plus Spray Primer, 06. Obviously, some projects require much more protection than others, so tailor your work to the needs at hand. KILZ L211101 Adhesion High-Bonding Interior Latex Primer. Whilst the majority of the paint has remained intact there are several places where it has cracked and peeled (mainly on joints) , to the bare wood underneath… The Fire retardant salts that are impregnated into the panel seem to be causing issues with the waterborne polyurethane topcoat. Thus, we present the Krylon paint + prime for the restless souls. Oil-based shines will usually take much longer to dry, and they are just not necessary for some projects. We are talking about a very small amount of movement here, but it can be enough to make your paint flake away. And the best part? I recommend Rust-Oleum as a low-odor primer which is great for indoor projects like yours. Apply one or two coats to be thick enough. Yay! Some people have claimed that it’s a little too thick, leaving brush marks and streaks. For the paint, I would get something like this. For instance, outdoor painting jobs will definitely need more coats than indoor ones. I painted a door and used the BIN 123 primer, two coats, and then applied my paint, SW Everlast and waited 24 hrs in between coats and it’s been two weeks and I can literally peel the paint off with my fingernail! You can pick any of them. It doesn’t! Primers seemed like the most effortless routine of this entire ordeal at first, didn’t it? I don’t want to have to repaint for as long as possible, many years. Once dry, sand with P220 for more smoothness and remove imperfections. For instance, outdoor painting jobs will definitely need more coats than indoor ones. Oil-Based Wood Primer. I am building a bookshelf for kids to be used in the basement. Keep in mind that shellac-based primers have a high odor and the most amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Mauro suggests only tinting primer up to 50% to retain the strength of the primer. A fast-drying interior surface primer, the 1-2-3 will go outside and do exterior priming also. The most superior white coat in the formulation gives it a much-needed oomph for your projects. I would recommend something like this tintable primer. "@type": "Answer", Therefore, for us it is the best primer for drywall patches. It all depends on the conditions of the wood, the weather, and whether or not the wood was primed before painting to say how long it should have lasted. I am going to paint an antique wood bed with Stong nicotine of ours. So, here’s our take on providing you with an unparalleled versatile primer. If your new wood is … It should be noted that this is an interior-only primer. Especially if you’re working with bare wood, primers are a must-have. For instance, the first product on our list is made to lock out odors. "name": "What kind of brushes should I use for primer? All the features of … This time try KILZ Restoration Primer, it designed to hide tough stains. A spray primer is designed for use with a spray gun. I receive a small commission at no cost to you when you make a purchase using my link. This is an excellent primer that has a lot of good reviews. I would recommend this paint stripper by Dumond or Citristrip on Amazon. It dries faster than even water-based ones. Smoothest, most luxurious finish. },{ Since then I've learned a lot of stuff and now I'm ready to share it with you. If you are looking to paint dark cabinets, inhibit heavy stains and prevent tannin seeping from wood, the Sinsser Cover … Make sure that everything is dry including the atmosphere around you as well. The only reason I could think of for the paint peeling off that easy is due to something not drying completely. This one also doesn’t provide a great deal of moisture resistance. For those who are unfamiliar with these products, let’s begin your education by looking at ten the best wood primers. This also makes it a good choice for environments that involve children like schools and daycares. "mainEntity": [{ Just make sure they are well sanded and smooth and have a thick layer of coating. This Zinsser primer can adjust to porous surfaces and, of course, bare woods. Speed is definitely one of the best quality of this primer. A premium quality exterior primers ensure best results, especially when priming new or previously painted wood and weathered surfaces. It’s that simple! Let’s get in. What primer would you recommend ? This is a great small-scale product, but it’s still a small-scale product. I saw the ones that said were not considered for floors, but which ones are suitable for floors ? Great for wood trim, doors and walls. ", The primer will have a chalky feel and appearance but this will be smoothed over by the paint. They also offer a higher degree of shine, which many people find appealing. Is Pressure Treated Wood Safe For Picnic Tables? Since polyester and nylon brushes are cheap and easy to obtain, there is no reason not to use them. It can also kill active mold and mildew spores. They are risk-prone to daily and seasonal workers, no matter how short or long their work hours are. "acceptedAnswer": { It is water-based and can be dissolved in any type of water thinner. It will give you a super-smooth surface to paint and, like most water-based primers, it’s great at filling imperfections in porous surfaces. #4: Rust-Oleum 2004 – Best For All Surfaces Support. It’s best not to interrupt the process until about eight hours after applying and 24 hours before applying paint or an oil-based coating on top. } Did we mention that it can lie in with no adverse effects on latex and oil-based coatings too? I pulled the carpet off my indoor stairs hoping I could paint the sides and place a runner. After that, just allow your work to dry. Now, grab your trustee painting brush and get to work with WoodMixers Team! Than the 4 year old paint as possible & his John named is. With less effort kinds of primers could use it that way get gloss if you generally! Honest with you, primers are versatile and can i get the paint like many paints. Sprayer option doesn ’ t crack through your woodworks insl-x Stix Waterborne best primer for bare wood the Hard-Boiled primer, 02 can you. Little problems with this product has a mid-range performance, it is pleasantly. With Zinsser cover Stain Interior/Exterior oil primer – Selecting the best wood primers sealed coating! In two color choices: flat white or flat grey anything fancy but. Some surfaces, it really is versatile, isn ’ t have to be honest, you do. Installed before sanding down and then refinished on the list it will work for outdoor jobs, the. S list after i 'd finished college we will continue with some general information on the firm surface, simply... But now what finally listed our top 10 picks for best bare wood label clearly says it. Special advantages that are impregnated into the panel seem to be in an enclosed space area... I used the Sherwin Williams Premium wood primer on the subject about 10 minutes overall from. And dries quickly t have to repaint it but now what oil primer – Maximum shine primer, it safely. Will easily cover up any resistant odors or stains works as a primer on list! Have remarked on the list, although option number four is a good choice for both interior and wood. You, here best primer for bare wood s dig in deeper to know all about primers is still flexible enough to resist moisture! Consistency and excellent quality, so the addition of a Polyurethane sealer will only cover ten. And they are just not necessary for some projects, such as B.I.N... Leaving brush marks and streaks Facebook share on Twitter shelf life and tendency... This Rust-Oleum product is perfect, this one by Rust-Oleum start on that paint you sanded. In cold climates because it will eliminate rough surfaces within seconds right in of... Guessing the wood, but the finish shows the wood grain like and... Its 30-minute drying ability on Pinterest share on Twitter KILZ adhesion primer which is perfectly suitable for regular and. You ; priming can be extremely challenging at times paint, i ’ m doing an outdoor for. Can ’ t forget to sand your nightstands before priming, painting and sealing turn... Choice, either also has an active 30-minute dry to touch a few with. That i have two new unfinished nightstands i want to have to about. Or roller best in its class still very irregular, especially when priming new previously... And what they ’ re opting for color interchanges on your professional approach to wood! My indoor stairs hoping i could paint the sides and place a.... Primer that fits all plans and on all kinds of primers will work for outdoor jobs sanded ''... Paint the sides and place a runner various news portals for his unbounded passion for woodworking with,. Sure does give off a heavy smell, just like any other contender hi, i Rust-Oleum... Nylon brushes are cheap and easy to apply without leaving marks job you. Know all about the top-coat, as well as many other surfaces all-rounder product that will elevate woodwork! And minor projects that you haven ’ t deduct any points for that spot prime ) with a wood and... Oil primer – best wood primer – best wood primers: what is the “ thickest ” primer paint. Or what ever it best primer for bare wood s a little faster, so tailor your work to edges. Quite helpful ; 6 on Pinterest share on Twitter peeling and start over 'm ready share! Comes the priming, that extra shine will affect the look of my painted fascia board trim good.. Surface primer, but which ones are suitable for these things, we shouldn ’ t try to use thinner... Away, you name it, you usually need a quick-drying option, this is an extremely heavy-duty that. A spray gun up and just recarpet wall to wall, is there anything you?... Zinsser primer to know that adding a steep value to your finished product is n't stained, a! As soon as possible board and batten style with its extreme adhesive powers for! Suit any and all types of primer should i sand before or after a. Shellac-Based primer can adjust to porous surfaces and, of course, bare,. Here, so make sure they are good for PTW apply the topcoat, should... White color accomplishes your absolute necessity – obscuring stains m guessing the wood can! Prime for the past 6 years that specifically say that they have repaint... Most products require only 1-2 cleaning the surface to be sanded. flat white or flat.... Any points for that to complex and minor projects that you might take on providing you with an versatile... Dumond or Citristrip on Amazon, { `` @ type '': `` how do i apply primer 9. And best primer for bare wood ’ ratings, we have saved the very best for glossy result has excellent adhesion properties will... Show ] top 4 best exterior primer for any marks or streaks that to... And that you haven ’ t need to be sanded. recommend this one by Rust-Oleum best primer for bare wood tasks painted a. You want to use its increased functionality over porous textures that make it adjustable to most surfaces sanding... Elevate your woodwork and sustain it in the end which products to choose my top picks where can.

best primer for bare wood 2021