Cookies policy. CI, Confidence interval; CRPD, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; ICF, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health; RAD, Rapid Assessment of Disability; SD, Standard Deviation; SDGs, Global Goals for Sustainable Development; W-DARE Women with Disability taking Action on Reproductive and sexual health project; WHS, World Health Survey. Each question asked for the level of difficulty on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from no difficulty to unable to do [1]. As part of the participatory research process of W-DARE, findings have been disseminated to relevant government and non-government stakeholders in Quezon City and Ligao City emphasizing the importance of including people with disabilities in their policies and programs. 2008;22(1):141–63. Most cognitive disabilities have some sort of basis in the biology and mental processes is the most obvious in the case of Disability prevalence among adults: estimates for 54 countries and progress toward a global estimate. The well-being scores were significantly lower for people with disabilities (mean ± SD: 57.3 ± 14.6) compared to people without disability (mean ± SD: 66.1 ± 14.1), p < 0.001. Philippines 1003 Telephone No. This is an important finding as psychosocial disability and psychological distress among people with other forms of disability are rarely measured and are therefore not addressed in national efforts to increase disability inclusion in low- and middle-income countries. The input of Disabled People’s Organizations into our research approach and the inclusion of people with disabilities in the survey team has increased the capacity of researchers with disability in the Philippines, and increased engagement between people with disabilities and policymakers, service providers, and government representatives at all levels. As a person with a disability, she yearns for the time when former leprosy patients can mingle and live with family members and be accepted fully by society. The households were then divided into quintiles, with the first quintile representing the poorest in the sample, and the fifth quintile representing the wealthiest. If participant responses include more than one barrier, they are asked to rank the most limiting barrier in the third item [15]. Each domain has three items. World Health Organization. The self-assessment of functioning section includes items related to functioning in eight domains: vision, hearing, communication, mobility, gross and fine motor, cognitive, appearance, and psychological distress. Article  The prevalence of disability was not significantly different among people aged between 18 and 44 years in Ligao City. Danquah L, Polack S, Brus A, Mactaggart I, Houdon CP, Senia P, et al. <> S0.Q&=@gS�Wc�]�rHbҋ�E��I�͞���.���� �ѭKP�����D�:�x0�)wD>�2�LD���BZQB��a��@6��̷}ax����B]���Hyߋ# �ҸK���hUzDb�f��u��"�� C�(4��Il��Se\����4� 9���R�"(�WeV�2{�~��C#�eh����[���K�q7�?���X�ߋ�*����+ML�x��ܩ�>� %�R�&*�t�U�� The resulting measures showed adequate psychometric properties and therefore the Rasch scores were used in subsequent analyses. Prevalence estimates from the RAD survey are, however, closer to the estimates made by Mitra and Sambamoorthy who, using only questions related to difficulty in seeing, moving around, concentrating or remembering things, and self-care from 15 questions used in the WHS, estimated disability prevalence to be 8.3 % in the Philippines [20]. Given the current global agenda for disability inclusion, it is crucial to increase understanding of the situation of people with disabilities in the Philippines. However, RAD also identifies respondents with psychological distress [5]. This study has also generated considerable context-specific data, which the W-DARE project have used to inform the design of interventions to increase access to specific domains of community life for people with disabilities in Quezon City and Ligao City. disability can also be defined as any form of impairment that negatively affects the ability of a person to function by and large. Within the selected segment, the survey team visited all households door-to-door, until 50 people aged 18 years and older were recruited. BMC Public Health. Psychological distress was the most commonly reported difficulty in the two samples: 2.5 (95 % CI: 1.9, 3.2) in Quezon City and 5.3 % (95 % CI: 3.8, 7.2) in Ligao City (Fig. Broken Framing: An Assessment on the News Coverage of Disabilities by the Philippine Daily Inquirer and the Philippine Star from 2010 – 2012, Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication. Both univariate and multivariate (binary logistic regression) analyses were undertaken to assess the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and prevalence of disability. People with disabilities also experienced statistically significant participation restrictions in social activities, community meetings, and religious activities compared to matched controls. Persons with Disability in the Philippines (Results from the 2010 Census). <> 2013;24(3):37–60. Funding has also been provided by the UNFPA Philippines Country Office. 60 clusters of 50 people aged 18 years and older were selected with probability proportion to size sampling from both locations. In the Philippines, women and children with disabilities were found to have lower literacy and school participation rates, and generally have lower educational attainment, than male PWDs and non-disabled children, respectively (Reyes, 2015). Outline of Presentation 1. endobj In both locations the prevalence of disability was significantly higher among those with no schooling. Geneva: United Nations; 2006. It may also be referred to as reading disability or reading disorder. Vaughan C, Zayas J, Devine A, Gill-Atkinson L, Marella M, Garcia J, et al. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The individual questionnaire comprises four sections: 1) demographics, 2) self-assessment of functioning, 3) well-being, and 4) access to the community. These factors contribute to Filipino-American perspectives on disability and rehabilitation. CAS  All authors contributed to the writing of the manuscript’s final version. A disability is a condition that causes a person to be considered disabled. Each eligible member of the household was administered the ‘demographics’ and ‘self-assessment of functioning’ sections of the RAD. 2011;73(10):1477–89. Challenges faced by teachers when teaching learners with developmental disability is the topic for this thesis. However, Loeb and Trani reported that disability and poverty as estimated using household asset index were not associated in Afghanistan and Zambia possibly because the majority of families surveyed in the two countries were poor [25]. Human Development Report 2014 - Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience. Disability is one of the most important issues in the contemporary society because stigmatization of people with disabilities contributed to the formation of biases and prejudices which put them into the disadvantageous position compared to people, who did not have problems of disability. However, earlier reports note that the quality of employment of PWDs still needs improvement. In accordance with local practice in the Philippines, relevant barangay kapitans (equivalent to head of a village or ward) were informed about the study and their endorsement was sought to facilitate introduction into the community. The study recommended a set of immediate measures to eliminate barriers to participation and for the economic empowerment of people with disabilities. Detailed maps with landmarks and roads were obtained from the National Statistical Office or drawn. The major barriers reported under each domain were similar among people with and without disabilities (Table 5). 8 0 obj 11 0 obj https://psa.gov.ph/content/age-and-sex-structure-philippine-population-facts-2010-census, https://psa.gov.ph/content/persons-disability-philippines-results-2010-census, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12963-016-0096-y. Statistical analyses were performed using PASW Statistics 18 (PASW Statistics for Windows, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Trani JF, Loeb M. Poverty and disability: a vicious circle? Data will be made available upon request when the project has been finalized. This survey did not find that household-level socioeconomic status based on the asset index was associated with disability. The authors highlighted that despite having several policies and laws to protect their rights, people with disabilities often faced discrimination in educational and employment settings, and experienced barriers to social participation and access to health and rehabilitation services [12]. Responses to the level of access to different domains of community were dichotomized with the positive response category ‘as much as needed’ coded as ‘met need’ and the three negative response categories as ‘unmet need’ (Table 4). Psychometrika. A population-based survey was undertaken in District 2 of Quezon City and in Ligao City. W-DARE is funded by the Australian Government’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) through the Australian Development Research Awards Scheme under an award titled exual and Reproductive Health of Women with Disability in the Philippines: Building evidence for action. We are very grateful for their support. Filmer D, Pritchett LH. Demography. PubMed Google Scholar. <> <> <> 10 0 obj The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. 2013;41:1–18. 9994 – Expanded Senior Citizens Act of 2010 • OSCA Facebook Page (please help … The prevalence of disability was 6.8 (95 % CI: 5.9, 7.9) and 13.6 % (95 % CI: 11.4, 16.2) in Quezon City and Ligao City respectively. The difference persisted after adjusting for age and sex. This approach not only builds their capacity to conduct research, but demonstrates their capacity within their communities. endobj The Philippines The Philippines is an archipelago consisting of 7,100 islands in the Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. Participants in Quezon City were comparatively younger, and had a higher level of education compared to participants in Ligao City. 2011;11 Suppl 4:S4. Although the RAD survey focused only on psychological distress related to anxiety and depression, findings from this survey highlight that a large proportion of people with other types of disability experience psychological distress. While psychological distress was not commonly identified in isolation, it was the most commonly reported difficulty in both locations. In Quezon City, the prevalence of disability increased with age from 2.7 % (95 % CI: 1.6, 4.7) in 18–24 years age group to 12.7 % (95 % CI: 9.7, 16.7) in respondents 55 years and over. Evidence from Afghanistan and Zambia. Downloadable! UN DESA. Employment of persons with disabilities (PWDs) in the Philippines: The case of Metro Manila and Rosario, Batangas Christian D. Mina † Abstract Persons with disability (PWDs) among the vulnerable groups are in the country that need utmost attention from the government.This is the perhaps the reason why the institutional Disability is also associated with lower well-being and reduced participation across a number of domains of community life. x�mYK�]7��θ����2��tz�=H�?�*�:W/π��кE�E察?��?�������Gk�}�(���?��ӥ�-���k���Vv�a��g����a�=��eH�*�l�2V����s�'�D�iE�ögM��]�������'�J���ie��X[���S�w���Y?�et9��=Z��kh��^d�u[���Zi���X}t�-��m�gWx�à�l�8s��ϞeJx�fYX!��8��b��Z���W�Vf�=��'V���{���XG�r��F7�_�f�I����S~�Zj{L~�/V�c���{�*: ��Q�>�5�"k���>�ݯ���n�~�f ��M���"�a��A='�k��=.��ؔWsOu�cg��u���eM�SJ���V��^�[3 �~x��. The study findings may not be generalized beyond the District 2 of Quezon City and Ligao City. BMC Public Health. BMC Public Health. However, having a disability and negative family attitudes were reported as barriers for people with disabilities participating in work, community meetings, religious activities, and social activities suggesting stigma associated with disability in these communities. There were also a number of strengths to this study. Loeb and Trani argued that socioeconomic status measures based on asset ownership only consider one dimension of poverty and wealth, and recommended using multidimensional approaches to measuring poverty when considering access to basic services related to health, education, and employment [25]. Andrich D. A Rating formulation for ordered response categories. The World Bank Economic Review. PubMed  Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) in the Phils. Philippines Statistics Authority. Socioeconomic status was not related to disability in both locations. In many contexts, people with disabilities are more likely to experience poverty, yet are often not appropriately considered or included in development programs [2–5]. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. While this could potentially affect the generalizability of the findings, the impact may be insignificant because the response rate was good in both areas. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2011. Questionnaires were translated into Tagalog and then translated back into English. Disability indicators for the SDG framework. Philippines Statistics Authority. However, respondents who needed services were provided with appropriate referrals. Article  Confidence intervals (CI) for prevalence estimates and regression odds ratios were calculated with adjustment for clustering effects in the study design using the generalized estimating equation approach. Supervised field practice sessions were conducted as part of the training. The Age and Sex Structure of the Philippine Population: (Facts from the 2010 Census). Huq NL, Edmonds T, Baker S, Busija L, Devine A, Fotis K, et al. In todays society people with disablities have to overcome many obstacles in their lives that their disability brings them in which they ( … Information on the level of participation and the impact of social and environmental factors on a person’s functioning are important for both the planning and monitoring of disability-inclusive policies and programs in the Philippines. Washington: International Food Policy Research Institute; 2005. It shall encourage learning disabled persons. The mean ± SD age of participants was 38.9 ± 14.3 years in Quezon City and 41.9 ± 16.5 years in Ligao City, and women were over-represented in both locations. Manila is the capital of the country, located in Luzon which is the largest island. statement and The demographic section includes items related to age, gender, ethnicity, religion, marital status, education, occupation, health conditions, and information on any assistive devices used. California Privacy Statement, Twenty years of non-communicable diseases (NCD) prevention and control in the Philippines (1986–2006). Lack of information and cost were the most commonly reported barrier for the majority of the domains. Deafblind Support Philippines . Quisumbing AR, McNiven S. Migration and the Rural–urban Continuum: Evidence from the Rural Philippines. Philippines Statistics Authority. Madans JH, Loeb ME, Altman BM. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were undertaken to identify differences in quality of life and access to the community between cases and controls. This sample size required 60 clusters of 50 people aged 18 years and older, of which 45 clusters were selected from District 2 of Quezon City and 15 clusters from Ligao City. A total of 265 people with disabilities (cases) were matched with 204 people without disability (controls) in both locations. endobj Particularly, it was conducted in partnership with disabled people’s organizations and people with disabilities were part of the data collection team in both sites. Age was grouped into five categories (18–24, 25–34, 35–44, 45–55, and 55 years and over), and education into four categories (no schooling, elementary, high school, and college/technical). <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Philippines 1987 National Constitution (present) Article 3: Bill of Rights – Section 3: “No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.” – Section 6: “No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation, or The respondents were asked “Does ___ have any difficulty/problem in seeing, hearing, walking, remembering, self-care, and communication?” However, the respondents were asked to rate difficulty of functioning in the different domains on a dichotomous scale (yes/no) [10], which has been demonstrated to underestimate disability prevalence and may in fact correspond only to the prevalence of severe disability [19]. 6 0 obj Having a disability and negative family attitudes were reported as barriers for people with disabilities participating in work, community meetings, religious activities, and social activities. People with disabilities generally had lower access to all domains in the community compared to people without disability. In some of the particularly disadvantaged, urban areas non-responders could not be followed up by the field staff after working hours for security reasons. In the Philippines, alcohol plays a large role in criminal activities and violence. Individuals were ranked according to the asset index of the household in which they resided. Phase one involved the collection of quantitative and qualitative data to understand the lived experience of people with disabilities in the Philippines. Disability (present or absent), as measured using the self-assessment of functioning section, was the dependent variable. Aims The overall aim of the thesis was to explore and d escribe service utilisation patterns among ... disability -related serv ices and those that address social problems during the same year. Disability is more prevalent among older respondents and those who had little or no education. Cite this article. In line with Article 31 of the CRPD, which charges State Parties to collect data on disability to inform disability-inclusive policies [11], the SDGs will include targets for collecting data specific to disability. As indicated earlier, the non-respondents are less likely to have a disability as the majority of them were away for work. New York: United Nations Development Programme; 2014. 4 0 obj * This paper will be part of an upcoming Person with Disability … disability, i.e… “A state of arrested or incomplete development of mind”; (World Health Organization). endobj World Bank. A thesis abstract should consist of 350 words or less including the heading. World Dev. Findings are relevant to government and other national agencies seeking to support universal access to a range of services, and more specifically, to respond to the needs of people with disabilities in the Philippines. The response categories are ‘none,’ ‘some of the time,’ ‘most of the time,’ and ‘all of the time.’ The respondents who answered they had difficulty most or all of the time to at least one item from the first seven domains or at least two items from the psychological distress domain were identified as having disability [15]. Filmer D. Disability, poverty, and schooling in developing countries: results from 14 household surveys. In this survey, the sample from Quezon City was younger and had higher levels of education compared to the sample in Ligao City. Only those participants identified to have disability were invited to complete sections on well-being and access to the community. Similar to many lower- and middle-income countries, the population is young with a median age of 23.4 years, and highly urbanized with 45.3% of people now living in urban areas [7]. There is a need for promoting counseling services and other support programs for people with psychosocial disability but also for those with other types of disability. endobj <>>> endstream This means that the subject in question will have difficulties to develop daily and ordinary tasks that, to the rest of the individuals, they are not complicated. Department of Health, National Center for Disease Prevention, Control Degenerative Diseases Office. A person with a cognitive disability has greater difficulty with one or more types of mental tasks than the average person. Children with special needs (CWSN) experience disability in various areas. 9 0 obj Seeing difficulty was the most commonly reported difficulty among participants aged between 35 and 54 years in Ligao City (Table 2). In line with the participatory action research approach, the findings from each phase informed the design and activities of the subsequent phase. endobj 1 0 obj 1). After surviving a fall from a tower in season one, Bran ended up as a paraplegic who had to rely on Hodor, a strong but gentle stablehand with an intellectual disability. The 2010 Census of Population and Housing estimated the disability prevalence at 1.6 % [10] using questions based on the short set of the Washington Group on Disability Statistics (WG) questionnaire [18]. Population Health Metrics The Philippines ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) [11] in 2008, and several laws and policies to promote the rights of people with disabilities have been enacted [12]. The independent variables were age of respondent, sex, education level, and asset quintiles. Our analysis highlights that psychological distress is common among people with disabilities. Given the current global agenda for disability inclusion, it is crucial to increase the understanding of the situation of people with disabilities in the Philippines. Poverty and disability: A survey of the literature. Asset index was used as a proxy indicator for wealth status using principal components analysis on the data from the household questionnaire [16]. The study interviewed people with disabilities from Metro Manila, and the Luzon, Mindanao, and Visayas island groups. As demonstrated in the previous RAD survey in Bangladesh, prevalence estimates with RAD are comparable to the WG short set questions that are most widely used in Censuses. Psychological distress was the most commonly reported condition in both locations, although it was often reported with a co-morbid condition related to sensory, physical, cognitive, and communication difficulties. People with disabilities also experienced significant participation restrictions compared to people without disability. The RAD questionnaire [15] is interviewer-administered and has two parts: a household questionnaire administered to the head of the household and an individual questionnaire administered to each individual in the household. %PDF-1.5 The prevalence of psychological distress alone (i.e., after excluding co-morbid functional limitations) was 0.9 (95 % CI: 0.5, 1.3) in Quezon City and 1.3 % (95 % CI: 0.6, 2.4) in Ligao City. These differences in estimates are mainly due to the variation in methods used for measuring disability. 2012;24(S1):S19–52. 2010. Manjula Marella. Disability in post-earthquake Haiti: prevalence and inequality in access to services. We are grateful to all participants and the entire W-DARE team for their contribution to the study. The prevalence of disability among adults in District 2 of Quezon City and in Ligao City is higher than the estimated national prevalence of disability derived from the 2010 Philippines census. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Understanding these factors is particularly important to inform the development of interventions in the latter phases of W-DARE. Rasch analysis was used to derive person measures for the well-being section. Table 1 summarizes the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the sample from the two locations. Part of Mental health and development: targeting people with mental health conditions as a vulnerable group. 2015;15(1):984. MM performed the analysis, interpretation of results and drafting the initial version of the manuscript. 2013. https://psa.gov.ph/content/persons-disability-philippines-results-2010-census. The Philippines is an emerging market economy and one of the world’s most populated countries with a population of 92.3 million people [7]. PubMed Central  The levels of well-being and access to the community for people with disabilities were compared with controls matched by age, gender, and cluster. The RAD questionnaire was used in this study. 2014;14:1. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-900. Rasch analysis is a form of Item Response Theory, where ordinal ratings are transformed to estimates of interval measures. Nations U. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling where each cluster was divided into clearly demarcated segments of equal population of about 50 people aged 18 years and above. 1978;43:561–73. Another limitation was that the assessment of disability was based on self-reported difficulty with functioning and further clinical investigations were not performed to confirm respondents’ self-reported difficulties. W-DARE: a three-year program of participatory action research to improve the sexual and reproductive health of women with disabilities in the Philippines. stream Given that the majority of households in District 2 of Quezon City and Ligao City also live in impoverished conditions, we hypothesize this is why our survey also found no difference in disability prevalence for people from poorer and richer quintiles. PubMed  Nossal Institute for Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Level 4, Alan Gilbert Building, 161 Barry Street, Carlton, VIC, 3010, Melbourne, Australia, Social Development Research Centre, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines, Graeme Ferdinand Armecin, Jerome Zayas & Ma Jesusa Marco, Centre for Health Equity, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, You can also search for this author in The clusters were selected with probability‐proportionate to size, separately for District 2 of Quezon City and Ligao City, using the updated data from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing [7] as the sampling frame. Article  www.nda.ie 6 1.1. This study did not include children because the focus of W-DARE is adults and particularly women. There is growing recognition of the need for disability-disaggregated data to increase understanding of the prevalence of disability and, equally importantly from a development programming perspective, to support the design, implementation, and monitoring of effective, inclusive development programs [1]. 2 0 obj Google Scholar. There are numerous and wide-ranging estimates of the prevalence of disability in the Philippines, ranging from 1.6 as estimated in the 2010 Census of Population and Housing [10], to 28.2 % according to the World Report on Disability [1]. And 54 years in Ligao City, as measured using the RAD household questionnaire was administered the ‘ demographics and. Department of health, National Center for Disease Prevention, Control Degenerative Diseases Office health conditions a! Disabilities have suffered from discrimination Southeast Asia in the community are mainly due to the asset index of limitations... 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New York: United Nations Development Programme ; 2014 [ 8 ] purpose the. Health Metrics 14, 26 ] were obtained from the home during the day at. Disabled persons in the 2013 Human Development Report 2014 - Sustaining Human:. Of community life older respondents and those who had little or no education to matched controls all contributed... For participating in work, community meetings, and had higher levels of education compared to people without disability for. 45 to 64 years 18 and 44 years in Ligao City ( Table 5.. //Creativecommons.Org/Licenses/By/4.0/, http: //creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https: //psa.gov.ph/content/age-and-sex-structure-philippine-population-facts-2010-census, https: //psa.gov.ph/content/age-and-sex-structure-philippine-population-facts-2010-census https. A cart, and the entire W-DARE team for their contribution to the sample in City! Hodor ’ S back recruited based on the Rights of persons with disabilities in the Human. 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Is a condition that causes a person to be considered disabled Washington: Food...

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